RIG & SAILS
July 26, 2018
Catamarans have a completely different rigging setup, and of
course our rigging on the 2004 St. Francis is quite different than what was
on our 1980 CSY. This section is currently under construction to
reflect those changes. The old CSY rig page can still be found
Best Rigging Reference Book:
Brian Toss's The Complete Rigger's Apprentice
Boom Mainsail Control Lines
We have 6 sheaves in the end of the boom to
handle the outhaul and 3 reefing lines with two spares. Our outhaul comes
out the forward side of the boom to a cleat. The three reefing lines run
inside the boom and then out under the forward end of the boom through line
stoppers to a self tailing winch on the back of the mast.
Reefing lines for the clew reefing cringles (large gromments in the leech of
the sail) should start with a slip bolon tied around the boom directly under
each cringle. From there each reefing line should go up through its
respective cringle and then down and aft to one of the sheaves in the end of
the boom. Each reefing line will then run forward inside the boom, exit at
one of the exit plates on the side of the boom and then through the cam
cleat to hold it in place. A cleat forward of each cam cleat would be much
more secure than just a cam cleat.
The other grommets in the sail forward of each clew reefing cringle are
called reef points and are used to tie off the foot of the sail around
itself using a square/reef knot (no grannies). This keeps the reefed foot of
the sail from flopping in the breeze and chafing your bimini/dodger.
The outhaul should go from the fully hoisted clew cringle around the center
sheave and then forward inside the boom as do the clew reefing lines. Using
the center sheave helps keep the boom upright and from laying over on its
For security most sailors tie a separate short line through the active
reefing cringle and around the boom so that if the reefing line breaks you
won't end up tearing the sail at the reef points.
Either way of securing the bitter end of the reefing line will work.
However, I believe that tying it around the boom is more secure as then
there is no danger of the padeye pulling out or breaking or the line
breaking at the sharp turn of the padeye.
The "reef points" are best secured around the foot of the sail if it is
loose footed in order to control the bulk of the reef sail. If yours is not
loose footed then I guess you will have to tie them around the boom also.
If the reefing line breaks all the load of the reefed sail will go on the
reef points and the sail will rip, so we (and most racers/cruisers) tie
another line around the reefed clew cringle and the boom just to make sure
it is secure.
Roller Furling Code Zero Light
post is from the original CSY rigging section. However, we moved the
Code Zero from the CSY to the St. Francis. We had a sailmaker friend
show us how to cut down the sail to fit the St. Francis rig, and Sherry did
the sewing. We now use a "prodder" on the bow (a removable bow sprit)
for the Code Zero.
we have arrived in the light-air tropics, and diesel fuel has gone up over
$4/gallon, we decided we needed a light air sail. We have recently
purchased and installed a new Code Zero sail with a
Facnor Continuous Furler. After getting quotes from various
sailmakers, we again went with
Super Sailmakers in Ft. Lauderdale. We talked at length with Peter
Grimm and told him what we were looking for. Here is what we ended up
- 988 Sq Ft (Luff
55.83', Leech 52.23', Foot 30.97')
- 4.18 oz Challenge Performance Cruise Dacron
- Vectran Luff Rope
- Leech cord
- Head and Tack Stainless rings suitable for the Facnor Furler
- Double rows of three step stitching, with corner reinforcements
- Optional light-weight stick-on UV cover (an additional $800)
We asked Peter to have it cut a little fuller than the normal
Code Zero (which is really designed to be a close reaching sail), so we
could use it off the wind as well. It is designed to sheet to the back
of the genoa track, where we have added a second lead block.
We did a few measurements for them (by then the boat was in
Panama) and they shipped the finished sail to us in Panama via
It fit perfectly and will last us for many thousands of miles of light air
When not using it, it is
lowered and coiled into the bag, and completely detached from the bow,
including the Facnor furler. We use the spinnaker block at the top of
the mast (be sure your block is a strong beefy block, because we have blown
out 2 cheap plastic blocks already, due to the large sail area).
A roller furling Code 0 sail is a specialty
sail optimized for upwind light air sailing (5-12 knots apparent). But
it will also work well reaching and off the wind.
We wanted to be sure we
could go both up and down wind and thus were willing to give up a little
down wind efficiency, that a fuller cut lighter spinnaker sail has, in order to do that. It
is made of heavier and different cloth than a traditional spinnaker made of
rip stop nylon. There are more expensive cloths made for this purpose, like Contender's Stormlite or Mylar, but we chose a light weight Dacron
based on it being nearly as effective, comparatively UV resistant and at
significantly less cost.
Some good reading material includes the
following, all from the May 2005 Cruising World:
-Breaking the Code, Kenny Wooton
-Heavy Hitters for Light Air, Carol Hasse
-Ghosting Across the Tasman, Evans Starzinger
-Also Doyle's Phamplets on light air sails, UPS and APC
Here are the specifications:
Sail area maximized to
move boat in light air 10 knots apparent and below, while still able to furl
in a hurry. For our
57.00' and J of 20.25' the Luff
is 55.83', leech is 52.23', and foot is 30.97' (CSY Dimensions). Total square footage
is 988. Based on having the foot of the
sail just clear the bow rail to prevent chafe we could have added another 2'
to the luff.
Shape: This sail is basically a large light weight Genoa but with some
refinements. It is cross, not radial or miter, cut. The draft is set
at 15% instead of the traditional 18% for asymmetrical spinnakers. This
makes it a flatter sail, better for up wind work. The clew is
positioned about 5.5' off the aft deck so that we can still see under the
sail at a moderate heel.
The sail is designed to sheet at the back of the
Genoa track so that we will have sheeting to all the track forward when the
sheet is eased.
4.18 oz Challenge
Performance Cruise cloth.
This is a great cloth for the
job as it has some give like nylon which helps keep it from slatting too much
or bouncing around in choppy conditions. It also has much better
strength, chafe/tear resistance and UV resistance than nylon
It will have two rows of three step
stitching which is appropriate over over kill for this type of sail.
Corner details: The head, tack
and clew have beefy welded external stainless steel O rings suitable for the
Facnor furler and 2 rows of three step corner patches commensurate to the
sail's task. The clew also has four 1" nylon webbing straps sewn on to
spread the ring load onto the patch and a Doyle 'Clew Trimline' strip of
colored cloth attached on both sides to indicate the proper trim angle line
Edges: The luff rope is made of doubled
Vectran to reduce stretch and inhibit twist when the
halyard is tight and the boat is going up wind. It is sewn into the
luff in two parallel strands beside each other from the tack ring up through
the head ring and back down. There are leech and
foot cords with the adjustable ends attached at the clew with a knot to sewn
in nylon webbing. Thus no plastic or metal hardware to chafe or
corrode. There is a light weight 2 oz UV sun cover so the sail can be left
hoisted and rolled while underway without sun damage.
Here are our
notes to the sail maker re where to sheet the clew of the sail:
clarify the sheet lead we think it best to sheet the sail to the jib track
rather than the old and possibly weak bail on the front of the jib turning
block or an additional pad eye aft of that. One other complicating factor,
not previously mentioned, is that we have a lifeline stanchion on the toe
rail that may be in the way of a sheet led directly to that area. It could
be moved if necessary. But if there is no other over riding reason to sheet
the sail further aft than the jib track, let’s sheet it to an appropriate
spot on the track so that we can move the car, if needed, for the wind
conditions. We will attach a turning snatch block to the front of the jib
turning block bail and keep a close eye on it.
block shackled to the forward bail/pad eye on the jib turning block would
put it about 20” behind the aft end of the jib sheet track. Since it is so
close it might be better to just run the Code 0 sheet through a lead block
at the aft end of the track and then to the jib turning block as I currently
do with the jib sheet. The current bail is now 30 years old and of 5/16”
SS, so maybe a little weak for a 1000 SF sail.
Size: Here are the notes we gave the
sail maker re sail size:
Regarding size, we will
take your recommendations, keeping in mind that we may be rolling it in and
out a lot in the tropics where light air often mixes with violent squalls.
We want to keep the boat moving, but also it needs to be of a size that we
can handle it easily when furling in a hurry. We certainly don’t want to
risk tearing the sail or having an accident just to get a few extra square
feet. Harmon’s (Dutch Love) 4 oz Dacron miter-cut older light air sail
measures 58x35x54 with about the same rig and boat size. He says it works
well if that’s of any help to you in determining approximate square footage.
The halyard top (bottom of halyard knot under pulley sheave) to center of pin
at tack pad eye (on anchor roller tray in front of bow rail and jib tack pad
eye) = 60’-10”.
Tack of sail should be up no less than 3’ from the tack pad eye to clear
the bow rail and allow room for the Facnor roller furler. Head of sail should be down no less than 1’ from the halyard knot to allow
room for the Facnor upper swivel. Allow about another 1’ for stretch and slop.
luff I figure should be no more than 55’-10”.
Facnor furler and Vectran luff rope at tack
Sheet lead through sliding block on jib
track to turning snatch block on bail
to primary winch
Head showing upper swivel
New Cruising Sails
(Topica Post 02/01/2004)
Just finished contracting with Supersailmakers in Ft Lauderdale for three
new sails. Thought some of you on the list might benefit from the following
information and specifications that I worked up for our new sails. It was
quite an enlightening experience and well worth the effort.
Over the course of four months I sent out 10 sets of basic specs and
received quotes from Calvert, Mack, Atlantic Sailtraders and
in the US and Lee and Hong Kong overseas. The quotes ranged from $7.5K to
$10.5K. Sails ordered direct from overseas firms are subject to about $1K in
shipping, duty, and customs agent fees and may require finishing full batten
construction in the US. After including all costs for equal sails the least
expensive overseas sails from Hong Kong were only about $1.2K less than
Super Sailmakers with a slow season and commercial discount. I considered
working with a local sail maker that would measure my boat and provide other
personal advice and services well worth the difference.
I found the following to be some of the major discussion/decision points:
--Batten length and details
--Cloth quality and weight-look very closely at quality
--Layout and cut
--Mainsail reef details
--Chafe and sun protection
--Use-Seasonal, coastal or blue water
--Leech and foot construction
--Jib and staysail clew positions
--Mainsail luff construction and hardware
My file of reading material is now a full 2 inches thick and includes many
good recent resources including:
--Sail Care catalog
--Sail Warehouse catalog
--Practical Sailor articles from 1 Oct and 1 Nov 2003
--Dashew's Cruising Encyclopedia
--and a host of various magazine articles
Recent info from the past three years is generally better as cloth and
sail making technology is changing rapidly. The two major US sail cloth
manufacturers, Challenge and Contender, also have excellent info on their
I recommend you do your homework well as this is one of the most expensive
and important projects you will do, and one with which many of us are not
well acquainted. In the end I found myself shopping more for an experienced
sail maker I could trust to advise me well than one who would do it my way at
the best price.
24 Sep 09 Hull Rig, Buy New Sails 44
I bought new cruising sails about 4 years ago for my tall rig 44, after a
substantial amount of research, from Supersailmakers. Since then several
other CSY owners, including Jim Dill, have bought from them also. Their
sails are superb.
Our main is full batten which I would highly recommend. Most of the others
have done the same. Just pay attention to how the full battens are done as
there can be a chafe problem sailing down wind.
My jib is 120 pct, 720 sf, but if I had to do it over again I think I would
buy somewhat smaller like around 110-115 pct. (Note, for the record, we have
a Tall Mast CSY 44)
We have since then purchased a 1000 sf light air Code 0 so we don't really
need such a large sail. Don't buy a sail with a low clew. A yankee works
well on a cutter, especially up wind. If you are not going to use a yankee
just make sure it is cut so that you can see under it when heeled. Ours is
cut with the clew about 7' above the deck which gives plenty of height to
Not all cloth is created equal and each cloth maker has several levels of
quality. It is worth reasearching this a bit so that you know what cloth is
being quoted when you go to buy sails. Cheap cloth won't hold it shape as
long as the more expensive cloths and will deteriorate quicker in the sun.
We bought the best cloth because we wanted it to last a long time.
There are lots of other things to consider when buying new sails, so be a
knowledgeable buyer and do some reasearch, ask lots of questions of
sailmakers and make sure you have done a good job of comparing the quotes.
Each sailmaker has his own idea about how things should be done when
building a sail. Also, there are lots of ways for sailmakers to cut costs,
so make sure you know exactly what you are getting before you buy.
(6 Oct 09 CSYO Post):8 oz cloth is probably the minimum you would want to
use for a 44 cruising main. Heavier cloth will last longer in the sun and
hold its shape for longer. It will also give you better chafe protection.
Before you sign up with a sai maker be aware of the quality of the cloth you
are getting and how the sail is constructed. Better cloth, construction and
chafe protection will cost more. You could also ask sailmakers to quote you
several grades of cloth so you can see what the difference in cost is. Our
main was constructed with 9.77 oz cloth, and although heavy it is bullet
proof. I initally wanted only two reefs but later Tom Service and some
additional reasearch convinced me that 3 'gears' was better
One other thought. If you are considering using a foreign sail maker, like
Hong Kong or Lee, be sure you know exactly what they are doing for you and
exactly what the shipping, customs and agent costs are going to be. I
contacted both directly by email, not through their US agents, and they were
not able to give me the extra costs. After a bit of research I found the
costs to total near $1000. The other way you can buy from overseas
sailmakers is to use their US agents. In this case they add extra for their
costs to import the sail plus a markup. When I discussed my new sails with
Hong Kong and Lee I found the following disadvantages to using a foreign
-they will not come to your boat to measure your rig and discuss your needs.
-they will want to construct your sail their way and will not offer many
options compared to most US sailmakers
-they cannot ship full battons and may not be able to construct a full
-they offered only one grade of cloth
-if there was a problem with the sail due to the measurements I had taken
the fix was on me
So the bottom line on using a foreign sailmaker is be careful and know
exactly what you are getting.
SOGGY PAWS SAIL SPECIFICATIONS
General Specifications for All Sails
Boat & Crew: a
heavily constructed 21 ton CSY 44 tall rig walkthrough cutter, my wife and i
are preparing for a 10 year trade wind circumnavigation commencing winter
extra heavy duty for long term blue water cruising, maximum uv resistance
throughout, maximum chafe protection and minimum long term stretch
Marblehead premium high tenacity high modulus polyester
staysail and main crosscut, generally shaped with full entries and straight
exits with draft well forward
stitched, uv resistant v-138 or better thread, extra wide seams at least
1.5" wide to allow for future repair without stitching over existing
stitches, webbing and acrylic sun covers stitched with minimum same thread
reinforced extensive layered patches with at least 6 layers of cloth to
spread loads and support corner rings and webbing, acrylic on jib and
staysail to be doubled over edges as both chafe protection and sun cover, no
Rings: use #35 hydraulically pressed rugerson all stainless steel rings
at jib and staysail clews and main head and clew, use heavy welded ss
exposed rings at jib and staysail head, tack and main tack, exposed rings to
be attached with heavy webbing and sun protected
Protection: for jib and staysail use 4" 3 oz tape over all chafe points
on seams including shrouds and spreaders, mainsail chafe protection
described under mainsail specifics
Tales: full complement on all sails, made with yarn
indicated are approximate maximum edge distances ring to ring available,
loft must take own exact measurements and deduct appropriate number of
inches in each dimension, especially luff, to allow for heavy weather
tensioning and ultimate stretch due to aging
-leech and foot construction: two ply leech and foot tablings, install
extra thickness of wider tape under the doubled leech tabling and leech
line, heavy duty leech lines centered in the tabling with stitching on
either side, leech lines adjustable at clews and at all leech reef cringles
with cam cleats to hold adjustments
Lettering: not required
Repair Kit and Spares: Provide
repair kit consisting of extra batten and leech end fitting, 5 awlslip
slides, webbing for slides, and misc strips and squares of 9.77 and 10.77 oz
cloth, telltale material
Jib Sail Specifics:
Maximum Dimensions: tbd
Cloth: 9.77 oz
Challenge Marblehead polyester
furling/reefing for profurl nc 42 (with heavy nr 6 luff tape), stitch in
best quality closed cell foam in luff enclosed in polyester cloth to
maintain sail shape during roller reefing
Near boom height about 6' off deck and so reefed sheet leads remain nearly
same as unreefed, ensure matches up with pole end approx 2' longer than J
Protection: Charcoal grey sunbrella acrylic, sewn on port side, cover
entire length of leech and foot and head and tack corners back approx 2'
along both edges, sew acrylic around edges and corners and over cloth and
all strain relief webbing, install sun cover so easily replaced without
removing any webbing or cloth
Sew in generous sized spreader patches of UV resistant polyester p & s
Cutbacks for Profurl NC 42
Place three telltales 12" aft of Luff at 20/40/60% up from tack
Maximum dimensions: tbd.
Loose footed cruising main with full entry and straight exit, easily
flattened for heavier wind with outhaul and cunningham, maximum draft well
forward, design with 12" roach that does not touch backstay
Cloth: 9.77 oz
challenge marblehead polyester
Reefing: 2 reefs
at approx 31 and 58 percent of sail area, 9' and 19' up luff, second reef
should leave head near inner forestay junction, use hydraulically pressed
large SS Rugerson #25 luff cringles with hand sewn webbed rings port and
starboard, positioned to reach reefing hook at gooseneck over stacked sail,
leech cringles same construction but larger #35 Rugerson cringles, extra
cloth layering opposing strain at all reefing cringles, extra cloth layer
under reef point eyes
Protection: Sew in heavy chafe protection port and starboard over batten
pockets and sail where they contact shrouds or spreaders, accommodate full
hoist and both reefed positions, goal is to protect sail on long down wind
runs with boom fully out and sail in contact with rig for long periods of
time, chafe material to be further discussed
all intermediate mainsail slides to be hand sewn on with 1" heavy tubular
webbing, use PTFE Awlslip internal slides, double up at head and major
stress points, use full length 3/8" New England spun Dacron boltrope with 9
oz tape over along entire luff
Position top two at leech end of top two battens and bottom two at max draft
25 and 50% up from foot
Corners: Use #35
all SS hydraulically pressed Rugerson ring at head and tack, use heavy
welded SS exposed ring with strong webbing strain reliefs at tack, use extra
thickness reinforcing patches at corners as necessary to ensure extra strong
Place Rugerson all SS hydraulically pressed Cunningham ring along luff above
Install five full length batten pockets in sail consisting of 3 layers of 9
oz cloth (27 oz total) producing a tube for the batten sewn on a separate
heavy cloth slab,
- Leech ends to consist of 4 layers of 9 oz cloth to hold the protected
- Use Bainbridge Aqua Batten A305 hardware at forward ends to tension the
batten and provide a universal joint with the Awlslip internal slides
- Provide four 7/16" and one 3/8" full length round pultruded fiberglass
battens with glued on leech end fittings
(Posted 4/23/2004) Mack
Sails of Stuart FL is a high quality sail maker specializing in cruising
sails. Both Tom Service/SV Jean Marie and Ron Sheridan/SV Memory Rose have
had or are having sails made by Mack. My current Yankee Jib and Staysail are
old Mack sails probably 15 or more years old. I have checked Mack out
carefully and they are top notch but also not inexpensive.
That said, I chose
Super Sailmakers of Ft Lauderdale for all the reasons I mentioned in my post
of a couple months ago. They are starting to construct my new sails next
week. My Mainsail is also full batten and loose footed but with a different
batten/slide system and a recent change to 3 reefs. We too are planning a
circumnavigation and I believe either sail maker can properly advise you and
construct suitable sails for that kind of service.
Be sure to check out all
the features each offer, especially the quality of sail cloth before you
sign up. Also, it is most important to have any sail maker you choose come
and personally measure your boat with you present so you can review with him
the myriad of details that will require your attention. That may be
difficult if you are on the West coast. I sure was glad I was there when
Peter Grimm measured my boat. (top)
Changing Profurl Bearings
(9 Sep 09 CSYO Post): Below is information on how to
change out a Profurl Roller Furler frozen bearing.
I've had my two Profurl NC42s now for about 10 years with no
problems. I have, however, heard of one or two bearing problems in the past.
If you figure out how to take yours apart look closely for any sign of water
intrusion into the bearings and where it might have come from.
I believe the Profurl manual says to wash them off with fresh water after
use. So if you haven't been doing that and salt water got inside that may be
the problem. It could also be a problem with the extrusions and their
connecting pieces that ride around the headstay. Or a bent extrusion. You
might want to look around carefully for other things that might be causing
the problem before you launch into the bearings.
(29 Sep Jackson CSYO Post): Ok, I removed the system and found that the
bearings in the main swivel unit had started rusting up. The double
lipped seals had let moisture in. Taking them apart is pretty much the
same as any mechanical seal, I first drilled a small hole into the seal in
order to get a scratch awl into the seal without damaging the bearing
surfaces in order to pry out the seal (you are going to destroy the seal any
way you do it). I have pictures and a diagram of how they are assembled in
case anyone needs it. Once the seal is removed, there are three
snap-rings in the interior of the swivel, both internal and external types.
The first one is mainly a stop for the seal, then on some there is an
aluminum spacer that needs to come out before you can remove the next
snap-ring that holds the bearings. After removal of the second one you
can press the center section of the swivel out of the carrier which will
push out the other seal.
I found info on the bearing sizes from Profurl and went to Miller Bearings
in Tampa and they ordered the correct sizes for me. The old bearings are
carbon steel, open faced, as an extra precaution I ordered sealed bearing as
well as outer seals as before. Assembly is a little different than removal,
you must install the first seal onto the center section and put on the first
snap-ring before pressing it into the carrier, unless you have some very
long snap-ring pliers.
The system is back up and working smoothly at a cost of less than $120. I
also found that this is a more common problem than we thought. Most riggers
do not even bother replacing the bearings, they just order new assemblies.
Don't want to think about how much that would have cost.
Profurl of course advertises their systems as having lifetime seals, but
they don't warrant them that long. There are some of their furling
units that they no longer make parts for, my particular one is in that
category as it is a mainsail furler unit. replacing the whole assembly was
not an option.
(27 Oct 09 Jackson CSYO Post): This diagram shows the difference between the
larger and smaller furler units. The smaller one has a spacer installed for
some reason, and if you don't remove it you cannot get the snap-ring out:
View these on the original CSY Owners Forum post